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Cloning and Why We Should Stop It!




Home
Table of Contents
What Is Cloning and the History of Cloning
How Cloning is Done by Artificial Embryo Twinning and Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
How the First Animal Cloned "Dolly"
Recombinant DNA Technology or DNA Cloning
Reproductive Cloning and Therapeutic Cloning
Pictures of Different Types of Cloning
Medical Problems
Problems During Later Development/ High Failure Rates
Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues of Cloning
The Risks of Cloning
Arguments Against Cloning
Question that might just change your mind about Cloning
Cloning your own Mouse
Cloning Quiz # 1
Cloning Quiz # 2
References

How Cloning is Done by Artificial Embryo Twinning and Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

Artificial Embryo Twinning:

 

  • This type of cloning is the lower tech version. This process copies the natural way of creating identical twins.
  • Natural twins are created just after fertilization of an egg cell by a sperm cell. When the fertilized egg tries to divide it creates two cells that continue dividing on their own. This creates two separate people in the mother. The two cells will be identical because they came from the same fertilized egg.
  • The lab way of cloning is by taking an egg that has been fertilized by sperm and the Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) cloning method will both result in the cell dividing.
  • There is a difference between the too methods. Embryo Twinning contains one set of chromosomes in both eggs.
  • When the sperm and the egg joined creating the fertilized egg, it ends up with two sets of chromosomes one from the father and one from the mother.
 

 

scnt_flow.jpg

www.vamr.org/ img/scnt_flow.jpg >


Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer:

  • This method is almost like the Embryo Twinning but it is different because the egg will only have a single set of chromosome in them that have been removed and replaced by the nucleus from the somatic cell. In which already have two complete sets of chromosomes.
  • This means that the embryos have both sets of chromosomes that came from the somatic cell.
  • The Words Somatic Cell, Nuclear, and Transfer break down:
  • Somatic Cell: Is any cell in the body other them the reproductive cells, sperm, and eggs which are germ cells. The other cells in the body all have two complete sets of chromosomes and the germ cells only contain one set.
  • Nuclear: The nucleus is the control center of the cells, it is what contains all the information that the cell needs to form an organism. The Information that it held in the nucleus comes from DNA. The DNA is what make every different in their own ways.
  • Transfer: It is moving an object from one place to another. The process starts with taking the Somatic cell from an adult female and transfer the nucleus from the cell to an egg cell that has the nucleus removed. Then after some chemicals are added to the egg a new nucleus will be added and it will be injected into a surrogate mother and carried for nine months until it is ready for birth. 

 

http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/cloning/whatiscloning/ >

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