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Cloning and Why We Should Stop It!

Table of Contents
What Is Cloning and the History of Cloning
How Cloning is Done by Artificial Embryo Twinning and Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
How the First Animal Cloned "Dolly"
Recombinant DNA Technology or DNA Cloning
Reproductive Cloning and Therapeutic Cloning
Pictures of Different Types of Cloning
Medical Problems
Problems During Later Development/ High Failure Rates
Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues of Cloning
The Risks of Cloning
Arguments Against Cloning
Question that might just change your mind about Cloning
Cloning your own Mouse
Cloning Quiz # 1
Cloning Quiz # 2

Recombinant DNA Technology or DNA Cloning

DNA Cloning refers to the same process as the transfer of DNA fragments. They take the gene that is needed from the organism to a place where is can self - replicate. Bacterial plasmids are used mostly for these experiments. There is a gene in the plasmid that is used to create many copies of the gene. Plasmids are self- replicating because they have an extra chromosome that are different from the normal bacterial chromosome. They are used for Human Genome Projects researcher to copy genes and pieces of chromosomes to create enough identical materials.


To clone genes a DNA fragment they have to isolate a chromosome using controlled enzymes. They will then join the chromosome to a plasmid. The plasmid has been cut using the same controlled enzyme used on the chromosome. The scientist will then use it for cloning in the lab.  


Plasmids: is and independent, self - replicating DNA molecule that can only carry a few genes. The number of plasmids in a cell stays the same for generations. Some plasmids can be injected in to bacterial chromosomes and then they become apart of the bacterial gene. 


They are easy to isolate by using bacteria and can take over genetic functions of a cell. This will make it easier to put the gene into an organism by using bacteria to help create fertilized eggs. Plasmids are the basic molecules used for Recombinant DNA Technology.



There are two types to the plasmid the Stringent and the Relaxed. Stringent plasmids are used to copy chromosomes when they copy, which mean it copy chromosomes. Relaxed plasmids are used to copy on their own, which mean it creates more plasmids instead of chromosomes.


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